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THE DEMOCRACY IN ITALY

THE DEMOCRACY IN ITALY

FROM THE FASCIST GOVERNMENT  TO THE DEMOCRATIC ONES

Map_of_Italy

From Wikipedia we cite as follows:

 

Fascist party

The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale FascistaPNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci). The party ruled Italy from 1922 when Fascists took the power with the March on Rome, to 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism.

Fascist government

After a drastic modification of electoral legislation (the Acerbo Law), the Fascist Party clearly won the highly controversial elections of April 1924. In early 1925, Mussolini dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a total dictatorship. From that point onward, the PNF was effectively the only legally permitted party in the country. This status was formalized by a law passed in 1928 and Italy remained a one-party state until the end of the Fascist regime in 1943. The new laws were strongly criticized by the leader of the Socialist Party Giacomo Matteotti during his speech in Parliament; a few days later Matteotti was kidnapped and killed by fascist black shirts.

After taking sole power, the Fascist regime began to impose the Fascist ideology and its symbolism throughout the country. Party membership in the PNF became necessary to seek employment or gain government assistance. The fasces adorned public buildings, Fascist mottos and symbols were displayed in art, and a personality cult was created around Mussolini as the nation’s savior called “Il Duce“, “The Leader”. The Italian parliament was replaced in duties by the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations, solely filled with Fascist Party members. The PNF promoted Italian imperialism in Africa and staunchly promoted racial segregation and white supremacy of Italian settlers in the colonies.

The Fall of Mussolini

On 25 July 1943 the Grand Council of Fascism, following a request from Dino Grandi due to the failure of the war, overthrew Mussolini by asking the king to resume his full authority in officially removing Mussolini as Prime Minister, which he did. Mussolini was imprisoned; however, the Fascists immediately collapsed and the party was officially banned by Pietro Badoglio‘s government on 27 July.

 

Democratic Party

The Democratic Party (ItalianPartito DemocraticoPD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.

The party’s leader is Matteo Renzi, who replaced Guglielmo Epifani as national secretary after the November–December 2013 leadership election. Renzi was the fifth leader of the party in six years (see list).

The PD was founded on 14 October 2007 as a merger of various centre-left parties which had been part of The Union in the 2006 general election. At foundation the majority of the PD was formed by the Democrats of the Left (heirs of the Italian Communist Party) and the largely Catholic-inspired Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy.[11] Within the party, an important role is thus played by Christian leftists, who are direct heirs of the former Christian Democracy‘s left.

 

Democratic government

The story is certainly one of the most curious because of “porcellum”. In 2005 the center-right government promoted and pushed through Parliament an electoral law very complex, with premium national majority in the House and the Senate majority premium regional for winning coalition. The law created a mess in 2006, because the center-left won by a few votes, but won a majority in the Senate so small that struggled to govern (and in fact it went to vote two years later). The same author of the law, Roberto Calderoli (Northern League), defined its own law a “crap”, which was intended to embarrass the big parties; inevitable the definition of “porcellum” usually given by Giovanni Sartori.

In 2007, the Democratic Party proposed a new electoral law (never approved) defined “Vassallum”, named after its creator, the political scientist Salvatore Vassallo.

On electoral laws Italy still lives often fierce debates. In 1953, he voted in the elections with a law attributed the 65% of seats in the coalition that had exceeded 50% of the vote: even though the standard does not snapped because the winning coalition won a majority of the votes, the electoral law passed into history as “fraud law”, so called by his opponents (perhaps the term was invented by Piero Calamandrei).

Italian Parliament after the “porcellum” approval

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2008 12,092,969 (#2) 33.2 217 / 630

Walter Veltroni

2013 8,644,187 (#2) 25.4 297 / 630  80

Pier Luigi Bersani

Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2008 11,052,577 (#2) 33.1 118 / 315

Walter Veltroni

2013 8,400,255 (#1) 27.4 112 / 315  6

Pier Luigi Bersani

 

….

CONCLUSION

In practice, the “Acerbo Law” and the “Porcellum Law” are identical because the latter exactly copied the former.

By means of the Acerbo Law Fascist Party got a fake majority of votes and instaurated a dictatorship in Italy, a country devastated by corruption, while by means of the Porcellum Law Democratic Party and others instaurated an identical government. Now, Fascists are considered criminals and dirty, while Democrats are considered honest and clean.

Nevertheless, fascist government removed the old climate of corruption running at that time in Italy, and improved the social and economical conditions of the population, while democratic governments nowadays have strengthen corruption and privileges, and impoverished the social and economic conditions of the countries. The former were considered criminal, the latter are considered fine politicians.

Think about folks, think about.

Meditate, gente, meditate.

20th December, 2015

Enrico Furia

 

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