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Olivetti Programma 101 – Perottina

Olivetti Programma 101 


L’Olivetti Programma 101, o P101, o Perottina è un calcolatore da scrivania, con stampante integrata, sviluppato dalla ditta italiana Olivetti negli anni tra il 1962 e il 1964. Progettata da Pier Giorgio Perottoinsieme con Giovanni De Sandre e Gastone Garziera, la P101, con la sua innovativa concezione e il design avveniristico per l’epoca, può essere considerato il primo personal computer.


The Programma 101, also known as Perottina, was the first commercial “desktop computer”.

Produced by Italian manufacturer Olivetti, based in Piedmont, and invented by the Italian engineer Pier Giorgio Perotto. It was launched at the 1964 New York World’s Fair, volume production started in 1965. A futuristic design for its time, the Programma 101 was priced at $3,200 ($23,000 if adjusted to 2011). About 44,000 units were sold, primarily in the US.

It is usually called a printing programmable calculator or desktop calculator because three years later the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, a model that took inspiration from the P101, was advertised by HP as a “portable calculator”, in order to be able to overcome the fears of computers and be able to sell it to corporations without passing through the corporate computer department. The concept of “stored program”, however, allows the Programma 101 to be considered a true computer.

from Wikipedia

“Quando Olivetti inventò il PC”, documentario di Alessandro Bernard e Paolo Ceretto sulla storia sconosciuta dell’invenzione del primo Personal Computer, prodotto da Zenit Arti Audiovisive di Torino
Era il 4 ottobre del 1965 quando le più importanti testate della stampa americana – New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Business Week, New York Herald Tribune – titolano a piena pagina: “The first desk top computer of the world”.
Un team di giovani ricercatori dell’Olivetti di Ivrea, diretti dall’ingegnere Piergiorgio Perotto aveva presentato alla fiera di New York il primo Personal Computer: la Programma 101, un calcolatore grande come una macchina da scrivere, pensato per il singolo utente in un’epoca in cui i calcolatori erano enormi, complicati e inaccessibili.

“The Olivetti Programma 101 was released on the international market in 1965 as a low cost desktop computer. It was a successful product, selling over 44,000 units from 1965 through to the early 1970s. Ninety per cent of sales were to North America, where its market dominance was attributed to its simplicity, functionality, robust construction, appearance and low cost. The Programma 101’s commercial life ended in the early 1970s with the introduction of competing products such as the Hewlett-Packard 9100.The Programma’s hardware architect, Pier Giorgio Perotto, has long been regarded as the “father of the PC” in Italy. He joined Olivetti in the late 1950s as part of its newly established electronics division. This division’s first task was to develop a computer, and the result was the first computer designed and manufactured in Italy, the Olivetti Elea 9003 in 1959.The Programma 101 grew out of a project that Perotto continued, without the endorsement of his managers, after Olivetti disposed of its electronics division in the early 1960s. Perotto’s work drew upon his Elea experience and led to a product that helped Olivetti move beyond making mechanical calculators.The design of the Programma 101 was undertaken by Mario Bellini, then Olivetti’s chief design consultant. The story of the design process is well documented and contributes to the interpretive value of this computer (Design Journal, UK March 1971 & McCarty C Mario Bellini Designer, MoMa, NY 1987).”Campbell Bickerstaff, 2008

Read more: http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/collection/database/?irn=378406#ixzz2YjhcFBei
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial

Development of the Programma 101 commenced in the early 1960s. Although Olivetti had disposed of its electronic division following the death of Adriano Olivetti in 1960, Pier Perotto secretly began work on an electronic calculating machine. The Programma 101 was launched in Italy in 1964 and by the early 1970s had sold around 44,000 units.The Programma 101 retained its status as the premier programmable desktop calculator for several years. The introduction of the Hewlett Packard 9100A calculator in 1968 heralded the end of this reign. Olivetti was awarded damages for patent infringements by Hewlett Packard.The Programma product designer Mario Bellini grouped the mechanical and electronic components in sub-assemblies and employed cast aluminium as the casing material to reduce electrical interference from nearby sources. The final layout of the Programma was the result of over 40 prototype models.
History notes
This Programma 101 was used at the University of Sydney in the engineering faculty. It had been in storage for many years prior to being offered to the Museum in 2008.

This text content licensed under CC BY-NC.


Read more: http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/collection/database/?irn=378406#ixzz2Yjix7bQS
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial






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