Home EDUCATIONAL CONSIDERATION ON INTELLIGENCE AND ESPIONAGE

CONSIDERATION ON INTELLIGENCE AND ESPIONAGE

Confusion is always needed for best imposing power.

Enrico Furia

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including, but not limited to, logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness,communication, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining, planning, and problem solving.

Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animals and in plants. Artificial intelligenceis the simulation of intelligence in machines.

Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometricapproach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings.

Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligerewhich derives from inter-legere meaning to “pick out” or discern. A form of this verb, intellectus, became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous. This term was however strongly linked to the metaphysicaland cosmologicaltheories of teleologicalscholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the Active Intellect(also known as the Active Intelligence). This entire approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early modernphilosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and David Hume, all of whom preferred the word “understanding” in their English philosophical works.Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used “intellectus intelligit” (translated in the English version as “the understanding understandeth”) as a typical example of a logical absurdity.The term “intelligence” has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has later been taken up (with the scholastic theories which it now implies) in more contemporary psychology.

An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized testsdesigned to assess intelligence. The abbreviation “IQ” comes from the Germanterm Intelligenz-Quotient, originally coined by psychologist William Stern. When current IQ tests are developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation(SD) up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically.By this definition, approximately 95 percent of the population scores an IQ between 70 and 130, which is within two standard deviations of the median.

An intelligence agency is a government agencyresponsible for the collection, analysis or exploitation of information and intelligence in support of law enforcement, national security, defense and foreign policyobjectives. Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. The assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysisor intelligence assessment.

Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments.

  • Provision of analysis in areas relevant to national security;

  • give early warning of impending crises;

  • serve national and international crisis managementby helping to discern the intentions of current or potential opponents;

  • inform national defense planningand military operations;

  • protect sensitive information secrets, both of their own sources and activities, and those of other state agencies;

  • may act covertly to influence the outcome of events in favor of national interests, or influence international security; and

  • Defense against the efforts of other national intelligence agencies (counter-intelligence).

There is a distinction between “security intelligence” and “foreign intelligence”. Security intelligence pertains to domestic threats (e.g. terrorism, espionage). Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states.

Some agencies have been involved in assassination, arms trafficking, coups d’état, and the placement of misinformation (propaganda) as well as other covert operations, in order to support their own or their governments’ interests.

Every independent State has an intelligence agency http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_intelligence_agencies which works for internal and external purposes.

Intelligence assessment is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization, based on a wide range of available informationsources both overt and covert. Assessments are developed in response to requirements declared by the leadership in order to inform decision making. Assessment may be carried out on behalf of a state, militaryor commercial organisationwith a range of available sources of information available to each.

An intelligence assessment reviews both available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency, where additional information is required some collection may be directed by the analyst.

CONSIDERATIONS

  • Intelligence Agencies are needed only for political and military espionage. Common people need no intelligence as espionage, but as just a mental process for discerning.

  • Politicians say intelligence is needed for preventing terrorism but we can see as so many terrorist acts developed even with the presence of some three hundred Intelligence Agencies spread all over the world.

  • Intelligence Agencies are extremely expensive and completely worthless.

  • The Governments of the United States continue to state they need to export Democracy (for their exclusive businesses). Democracy is neither the best form of Government, nor exportable (by definition).

  • The case in Rome of Mrs. Alma Shalabayeva and her daughter clearly indicates how too many actions of any Intelligence Agency, in this case the Italian one, be irresponsible and/or really stupid. We still know nothing about Mr. Mukhtar Ablyazov, wanted by the Government of Kazakhstan for crimes not communicated. We know nothing whether his case is similar to those of Mikhail Khodorkovskij e Boris Berezhovskij, enemies of Vladimir Putin, or to that of Yulija Timoshenko, enemy of the President of Ukraine Viktor Janukovic. What we know is that for sure Intelligence Agencies do not work for citizens, but just for their scopes.

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