ABOUT LOGICAL COHERENCE OF

EINSTEIN’S FORMULA E = mc2

Nomenclature

The formula was initially written in many different notations, and its interpretation and justification was further developed in several steps.

In “Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy content?” (1905), Einstein used V to mean the speed of light in a vacuum and L to mean the energy lost by a body in the form of radiation. Consequently, the equation E = mc2 was not originally written as a formula but as a sentence in German saying that if a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/V². A remark placed above it informed that the equation was approximated by neglecting “magnitudes of fourth and higher orders” of a series expansion.

In May 1907, Einstein explained that the expression for energy ε of a moving mass point assumes the simplest form, when its expression for the state of rest is chosen to be ε0 = μV2 (where μ is the mass), which is in agreement with the “principle of the equivalence of mass and energy”.

In addition, Einstein used the formula μ = E0/V2, with E0 being the energy of a system of mass points to describe the energy and mass increase of that system when the velocity of the differently moving mass points is increased.

In June 1907, Max Planck rewrote Einstein’s mass–energy relationship as M = E0 + pV0/c2, where p is the pressure and V the volume to express the relation between mass, its latent energy,

and thermodynamic energy within the body.[7] Subsequently in October 1907, this was rewritten as M0 = E0/c2 and given a quantum interpretation by Johannes Stark, who assumed its validity and correctness (Gültigkeit).

In December 1907, Einstein expressed the equivalence in the form M = μ + E0/c2 and concluded:

A mass μ is equivalent, as regards inertia, to a quantity of energy μc2. […] It appears far more natural to consider every inertial mass as a store of energy.

In 1909, Gilbert N. Lewis and Richard C. Tolman used two variations of the formula: m = E/c2 and m0 = E0/c2, with E being the energy of a moving body, E0 its rest energy, m the relativistic mass, and m0 the invariant mass.[11] The same relations in different notation were used by Hendrik Lorentz in 1913 (published 1914), though he placed the energy on the left-hand side: ε = Mc2 and ε0 = mc2, with ε being the total energy (rest energy plus kinetic energy) of a moving material point, ε0 its rest energy, M the relativistic mass, and m the invariant (or rest) mass.

In 1911, Max von Laue gave a more comprehensive proof of M0 = E0/c2 from the stress–energy tensor,[13] which was later (1918) generalized by Felix Klein.

Einstein returned to the topic once again after World War II and this time he wrote E = mc2 in the title of his article[15] intended as an explanation for a general reader by analogy.

Speed of light

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light we cite:

“Lightspeed” redirects here. For other uses, see Speed of light (disambiguation) and Lightspeed (disambiguation).

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its precise value is 299792458 metres per second (approximately 3.00×108 m/s), since the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time.

According to special relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all matter and hence information in the universe can travel.

It is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as light and gravitational waves) travel in vacuum. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer. In the theory of relativity, c interrelates space and time, and also appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.

Laws of thought

https://www.britannica.com/topic/laws-of-thought

LOGIC ARGUMENTS

Classical Logic

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_logic

DEFINITIONS AND PREMISES

Einstein’s mass energy equivalence formula

E = mc2

Coherence Theory of Truth

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/truth-coherence/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherence_theory_of_truth

Mass energy equivalence

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass%E2%80%93energy_equivalence

Mass

Energy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy

Mass of light

http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/2229/if-photons-have-no-mass-how-can-they-have-momentum

CONCLUSIONS

1) C = constant implies c² false for a lack of coherence.

2) V = the speed of any other matter but not light in a vacuum implies V² is possible.

3) V = the speed of light in a vacuum implies V² false for a lack of coherence, because the speed of light has been defined as the maximum speed that any matter can reach in nature.

4) If (V or c) implies light, photon’s mass is 0, then if we substitute this value to Heinstein’s formula, the result = 0

5) Einstein’s formula is false, even if a relationship between energy and mass really exists in nature.

COMMENT

Too many scientists state theories with no good reasoning, just to make money, and not for reaching knowledge.

16th August 2016

**Enrico Furia**